A test (or combination of tests) to measure the learning outcome of a learning activity - typically a course.
Exams can be pass/fail or graded.
There are many different types of tests. In some places written, individual exams in exam halls or similar are the most common.
Some institutions have oral exams, and some also use, for instance, projects or take home assignments at the end of a course as tests. Some institutions even have group exams.